Security measures used at this layer are application specific. Different types of application would need separate security measures. In order to ensure application layer security, the applications need to be modified. It is considered that designing a cryptographically sound application protocol is very difficult and implementing it properly is even more challenging. Hence, application layer security mechanisms for protecting network communications are preferred to be only standards-based solutions that have been in use for some time.
Mobile Device Security
Mobile devices face security threats that take advantage of vulnerabilities found in these devices.It can be result implemented.
Lost or Stolen Devices
With a growing mobile workforce, there is a huge security risk to the enterprise associated with lost or stolen employee devices.
S/MIME stands for Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension. S/MIME is a secure e-mail standard. It is based on an earlier non-secure e-mailing standard called MIME.Working of S/MIME S/MIME approach is similar to PGP. It also uses public key cryptography, symmetric key cryptography, hash functions, and digital signatures. It provides similar security services as PGP for e-mail communication. Employability of S/MIME Due to the requirement of a certificate from certification authority for implementation, not all users can take advantage of S/MIME, as some may wish to encrypt a message, with a public/private key pair. For example, without the involvement or administrative overhead of certificates.
In the first chapter, we have mentioned that an attacker can use DNS Cache Poisoning to carry out an attack on the target user. Domain Name System Security Extensions (DNSSEC) is an Internet standard that can foil such attacks.